Gender Equity in the Time of COVID-19
As the effects of COVID-19 evolve globally, it has become clear that the pandemic holds important implications for gendered inequalities. Gender impacts how COVID-19 is experienced and managed at the individual level, as well as within families, organizations, and communities. These differences both exacerbate and transform gender inequalities in these various realms such that their effects will ripple into the years to come.
Gender also intersects with other inequalities, putting low-income women, women of colour, Indigenous women, and trans and gender diverse people particularly at risk, not only for contracting the disease, but also for bearing the brunt of economic and mental health hardships resulting from it.
In response, the GenEQ Initiative has aggregated academic and popular writing that presents gendered analyses of the pandemic. These writings underscore the complex, systemic nature of gendered inequalities within our communities as they play out amid COVID-19. Our hope is that this page will act as a resource for the University of Guelph community to think through how to address gender and health equity in all its complexity during the pandemic.
Resources on this page are organized by theme. We first introduce resources offering a general overview of the topic and follow with sections devoted specifically to leadership and paid work, care work and domestic labour, domestic violence, gendered health behaviours, and sexual and reproductive rights. In each section, we first offer a brief synopsis of key learnings, then share links to academic and policy papers, as well as popular media articles for each topic.
In addition, note that the Office of Diversity and Human Rights at the University of Guelph has recently put together an Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Handbook for Individuals and Organizations During COVID-19 that addresses some of the issues presented here and offers resources for support and belonging in this time of crisis.
If you are facing challenges related to COVID-19 such as those identified on this page, consider reaching out to the following resources:
- Care and Domestic Work
- Domestic Violence
- Sexual and Reproductive rights
- Ontario Telehealth offers free medical advice. Call: 1-866-797-0000.
- Mental Health
Academic & Policy Resources:
- Raile, Amber N. W., Eric D. Raile, David C. W. Parker, Elizabeth A. Shanahan, and Pavielle Haines. (Nov 26, 2020). Women and the Weight of a Pandemic: A Survey of Four Western U.S. States Early in the Coronavirus Outbreak. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12590
- Hari, Amrita and Luciara Nardon. (Nov 2, 2020). Immigrant women are falling behind during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/immigrant-women-are-falling-behind-during-the-covid-19-pandemic-147821
- Various. Feminists Theorize COVID-19. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. http://signsjournal.org/covid/
- Gao, Grace and Linna Sai. (Aug 8, 2020). Opposing the toxic apartheid: The painted veil of COVID‐19 pandemic, race and racism. Gender, Work & Organization.
- Sultana, Anjum and Carmina Ravanera. (July 28, 2020). A Feminist Economic Recovery Plan for Canada: Making the Economy Work for Everyone. The Institute for Gender and the Economy (GATE) and YWCA Canada. www.feministrecovery.ca
- Sultana, Anjum and Carmina Ravanera. (July 28, 2020). We can’t build back better without economic justice for racialized women. Corporate Knights.
- The Canadian Women’s Foundation, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Ontario Nonprofit Network, Fay Faraday. (July 2020). Resetting Normal: Women, Decent Work and Canada’s Fractured Care Economy. https://canadianwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/ResettingNormal-Women-Decent-Work-and-Care-EN.pdf
- Lorber, Judith. (June 16, 2020). Gendered COVID-19 Research. Gender & Society Blog. https://gendersociety.wordpress.com/2020/06/16/gendered-covid-19-research
- Barry, Ben. (June 8, 2020). Fashioning Masculinity in Confinement. Gender & Society Blog. https://gendersociety.wordpress.com/2020/06/08/fashioning-masculinity-in-confinement
- Hawaii State Commission on the Status of Women. (April 14, 2020). Building Bridges, Not Walking on Backs: A Feminist Economic Recovery Plan for COVID-19. Department of Human Services State of Hawaiʻi.
- Linde, Ann and Arancha González. (May 8, 2020). The Pandemic’s Gender Imperative. Project Syndicate.
- de Paz Carmen, Miriam Muller, Ana Maria Munoz Boudet, and Isis Gaddis. Gender Dimensions of the COVID-19 Pandemic. (April 2020) The World Bank.
- Bullock, Katherine. (April 27, 2020). We are all niqabis now: Coronavirus masks reveal hypocrisy of face covering bans. The Conversation.
- Alon, Titan M., Matthias Doepke, Jane Olmstead-Rumsey, and Michelle Tertilt. (April 2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Gender Equality. NBER Working Paper. No. 26947
- Carmina Ravanera and Sarah Kaplan. (April 2020). Primer on the Gendered Impacts of COVID-19. Institute for Gender + The Economy, University of Toronto.
- Wenham, Clare, Julia Smith and Rosemary Morgan, on behalf of the Gender and COVID-19 Working Group. (March 6, 2020). COVID-19: The Gendered Impacts of the Outbreak. The Lancet.
- Palmater, Pam. (March 25, 2020). Canada is Ignoring the Gendered Impacts of COVID-19 on Indigenous Women. Canadian Dimension.
- Regnér, Åsa. (March 20, 2020). Checklist for COVID-19 response by UN Women Deputy Executive Director Åsa Regnér. UN Women.
COVID-19 and gender inequality: Media reports documenting the pandemic’s impact on gender equality are inadvertently deflecting accountability. Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2020/11/24/making-headlines-covid-19-and-gender-inequality/
2020 Has Been Miserable. Is Extreme Masculinity to Blame? Politico. https://www.politico.com/news/magazine/2020/11/19/masculinity-coronavirus-masks-pandemic-2020-trump-biden-438413
UN General Assembly 75: In a Pandemic World, Where Does Gender Equality Fit In? UN Women.
4 Tips On Wearing A COVID-19 Mask, From A Niqabi. Chatelaine. https://www.chatelaine.com/health/4-tips-on-masks-from-a-niqabi/
COVID-19 Creates More Back-to-School Uncertainty for Trans and Nonbinary Students. Rewire News.
The coronavirus backlash: how the pandemic is destroying women's rights. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2020/jun/23/the-coronavirus-backlash-how-the-pandemic-is-destroying-womens-rights
'We are losers in this crisis': research finds lockdowns reinforcing gender inequality. The Guardian.
The ‘she-cession’ may be new but its underlying causes are not. The Star.
- Black Feminist Perspectives on COVID-19: A Reading List. Black Women Radicals.
- Gender Affirming Surgery Is Being Delayed or Canceled Because of the Coronavirus Pandemic. Teen Vogue.
- This State says it has a ‘feminist economic recovery plan.’ Here’s what that looks like. The Lily.
- COVID-19 Should Be a Wake-Up Call for Feminists. Jacobin.
- What Do Women and Working Families Need to Face COVID-19? (originally posted in National Women’s Law Centre). Ms Magazine.
- Women and the Hidden Burden of the Coronavirus. The Hill.
- Why the Coronavirus Outbreak Could Hit Women Hardest. Time.
- Do Women and Men Have a Coronavirus Risk Gap? Forbes.
Resources in this section highlight that:
- Women are more likely than men to work on the pandemic’s frontline, as health and social service providers, and are therefore at higher risk for contracting the disease.
- Women, and particularly women of colour, are also most likely to work in temporary, precarious forms of employment, meaning they disproportionately bear the brunt of pandemic-related job losses.
- Women’s underrepresentation in leadership positions means that their voices are less likely to be heard and their interests represented in decision making.
- At the same time, some of the strongest national and public health responses to the pandemic have come from women leaders.
Academic & Policy Resources:
Taboada, Maite. (Nov 25, 2020). The coronavirus pandemic increased the visibility of women in the media, but it’s not all good news. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/the-coronavirus-pandemic-increased-the-visibility-of-women-in-the-media-but-its-not-all-good-news-146389
Atkinson, Tyler and Alex Richter. (Nov 10, 2020). Pandemic Disproportionately Affects Women, Minority Labor Force Participation. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. https://www.dallasfed.org/research/economics/2020/1110
Morabito, Anabella. (Nov 13, 2020). The Crossroads of COVID: Class, Race and Gender. Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/advice/2020/11/13/colleges-should-especially-support-low-income-women-color-during-pandemic-opinion
Rutter, Virginia. (Oct 27, 2020). Telecommuting Gets Mixed Results for Gender Equity at Home, and Women Are More Depressed. Council of Contemporary Families. https://thesocietypages.org/ccf/2020/10/27/telecommuting-gets-mixed-results-for-gender-equity-at-home-and-women-are-more-depressed/
Aldossari, Maryam and Sara Chaudhry (Oct 17, 2020). Women and burnout in the context of a pandemic. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12567
Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn. (Oct 14, 2020). The Missing Voice of Women in COVID-19 Policy Making. Policy Options. https://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/october-2020/the-missing-voice-of-women-in-covid-19-policy-making/
Murray, Nic (October 2020). Burnout Britain: Overwork in an Age of Unemployment. Compass. https://www.compassonline.org.uk/publications/burnout-britain-overwork-in-an-age-of-unemployment/
Feng, Zhiyu and Krishna Savani. (2020). "Covid-19 created a gender gap in perceived work productivity and job satisfaction: implications for dual-career parents working from home." Gender in Management: An International Journal. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/GM-07-2020-0202/full/html
Yue Qian, and Fuller, Sylvia. (2020). "COVID-19 and the Gender Employment Gap among Parents of Young Children." Canadian Public Policy 46(S2): S89-S101. https://www.utpjournals.press/doi/full/10.3138/cpp.2020-077
Smith, Chris and Deirdre Watchorn. (Sept 17, 2020). The pandemic is making it harder for researchers but women are hit the hardest. 4 findings from 80 countries. LSE Impact Blog. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2020/09/17/the-pandemic-is-making-it-harder-for-researchers-but-women-are-hit-the-hardest-4-findings-from-80-countries/
Williams, Allison. (Sept 16, 2020). COVID-19’s silver lining? Creating a caregiver-friendly work culture. The Conversation.
Murat Yildirim, T. and Hande Eslen‐Ziya. (Aug 19, 2020). The Differential Impact of COVID‐19 on the Work Conditions of Women and Men Academics during the Lockdown. Gender, Work & Organization.
Wright, Katharine A.M., Toni Haastrup and Roberta Guerrina. (Aug 13, 2020). Equalities in freefall? Ontological insecurity and the long‐term impact of COVID‐19 in the academy. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12518
Landivar, Liana Christin, Leah Ruppanner, William J. Scarborough, and Caitlyn Collins. (Aug 3, 2020). Early Signs Indicate That COVID-19 Is Exacerbating Gender Inequality in the Labor Force." Socius.
Lyttelton, Thomas, Emma Zang and Kelly Musick. Before and during COVID-19: Telecommuting, Work-Family Conflict, and Gender Equality. Council of Contemporary Families.
Harquail, CV. (2020). Bringing Feminist Practices into Online Work Sessions. Feminist Enterprise Collective. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/566754edbfe8731ec3629394/t/5ed8076762c5a006babdd10c/1591215979262/Feminist+Practices+Online+FAW.pdf
Collins, Caitlyn. (Aug 7, 2020). Productivity in a Pandemic. Science. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/369/6504/603
Cherneski, Jennifer. (July 22, 2020). Evidence‐loving rock star chief medical officers: Female leadership amidst COVID‐19 in Canada. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12494
Leah Ruppanner, Caitlyn Collins, and William Scarborough (July 21, 2020). COVID-19 is a disaster for mothers' employment. And no, working from home is not the solution. The Conversation.
Vroman, Susan R. and Tiffany Danko. (July 6, 2020). Against what model? Evaluating women as leaders in the pandemic era. Gender, Work & Organization.
Collins, Caitlyn, Liana Christin Landivar, Leah Ruppanner and William J. Scarborough. (July 2, 2020). COVID‐19 and the Gender Gap in Work Hours. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gwao.12506
Misra, Joya. (July 3, 2020). Nearly 3 in 4 US moms were in the workforce before the COVID-19pandemic – is that changing? The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/nearly-3-in-4-us-moms-were-in-the-workforce-before-the-covid-19-pandemic-is-that-changing-141510
Risman, Barbara. (July 2, 2020). Will COVID-19 Push Women Out of the Labor Force? What will happen if the economy opens but schools do not? Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/gender-questions/202007/will-covid-19-push-women-out-the-labor-force
Craig, Lyn, and Brendan Churchill. (June 25, 2020). Dual‐earner parent couples’ work and care during COVID‐19. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gwao.1249
O’Keefe, Theresa and Aline Courtois. (June 30, 2020). Who does the ‘housework of the university’ during a pandemic? The impact of COVID-19 on precarious women working in universities. Gender & Society Blog. https://gendersociety.wordpress.com/2020/06/30/who-does-the-housework-of-the-university-during-a-pandemic-the-impact-of-covid-19-on-precarious-women-working-in-universities
- Malisch, Jessica et al. (June 17, 2020). In the wake of COVID-19, academia needs new solutions to ensure gender equity. PNAS. https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/16/2010636117#ref-6
- Derek Messacar, René Morissette and Zechuan Deng. (June 8, 2020). Inequality in the feasibility of working from home during and after COVID-19. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/45-28-0001/2020001/article/00029-eng.pdf?st=on0ez_MJ
- Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald, Rodrigo Dominguez-Villegas & Eric Hoyt. (June 2020). The COVID-19 Recession: An Opportunity to Reform our Low Wage Economy? University of Amherst Center for Employment Equity. https://www.umass.edu/employmentequity/covid-19-recession-opportunity-reform-our-low-wage-economy
- Viglioni, Giulianna. (May 20, 2020). Are women publishing less during the pandemic? Here’s what the data say. Nature.
- Cohen-Miller, Anna. (May 19, 2020). Promoting Equity and Inclusion for Mothers in Academe. Inside Higher Ed.
- Vincent-Lamarre, Philippe, Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Vincent Larivière. (May 19, 2020). The decline of women's research production during the coronavirus pandemic. Nature Index.
- Buckee, Caroline et. al. (May 15, 2020). Women in science are battling both Covid-19 and the patriarchy. Times Higher Education.
- Staniscuaski, Fernanda et. al. (May 15, 2020). Impact of COVID-19 on academic mothers. Science.
- Goodwin, Stephanie A. and Beth Mitchneck. (May 13, 2020). STEM Equity and Inclusion (Un)Interrupted? Inside Higher Ed.
- Wiegand, Krista, Debbie Lisle, Amanda Murdie, and James Scott. (May 15, 2020). Journal Submissions in Times of COVID-19: Is There A Gender Gap? Duck of Minerva.
- Wade, Lisa and Tristan Bridges. (May 13, 2020). Why we need a “feminine” economic reopening. Gender & Society Blog.
- Costa, Karen. (April 30, 2020). Women's Emotional Labor in Higher Ed and the COVID‐19 Crisis. Women in Higher Education.
- Lightman, Naomi and Ted McCoy. (April 29, 2020). Canada's she-cession: COVID-19, care work and the decline of the service sector. Rabble.
- de Laat, Kim. (April 2020). Remote work and gender inequality throughout and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy Brief for The Institute for Gender + The Economy, University of Toronto.
- Scott, Katherine. (March 20, 2020). COVID-19 Crisis Response Must Address Gender Faultlines. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
- Boncori, Ilaria. (April 15, ,2020). The Neverending Shift: A Feminist Reflection on Living and Organising Academic Lives During the Coronavirus Pandemic. Gender, Work & Organization.
- Minello, Alessandra. (April 17, 2020). The Pandemic and the Female Academic. Nature.
- Kikuchi, Lukas. and Khurana, Ishan. (March 2020). The Jobs at Risk Index. Autonomy.
Women are systematically excluded from global coronavirus coverage, experts say. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/10/08/women-experts-excluded-global-coronavirus-coverage/
Recession With a Difference: Women Face Special Burden. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/17/business/economy/women-jobs-economy-recession.html
This Equal Pay Day, Covid-19 hasn’t just exposed the barriers women face in our economy – it could raise them. Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/equal-pay-day-gender-gap-women-economy-coronavirus-b1759040.html
The economy could lose a generation of working mothers. Vox. https://www.vox.com/21536100/economy-pandemic-lose-generation-working-mothers
Stop Saying Women “Dropped Out” Of The Workforce. We Were Pushed. Romper. https://www.romper.com/life/stop-saying-women-dropped-out-of-the-workforce-we-were-pushed
Covid-19’s Impact on Working Women Is an Unprecedented Disaster. Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/covid-19s-impact-working-women-unprecedented-disaster-180976084/
Mothers are the ‘Shock Absorbers’ of Our Society. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/14/parenting/working-moms-job-loss-coronavirus.html#click=https://t.co/UNHuiHCp9I
Women bear brunt of Covid-related work stress, UK study finds. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/oct/09/women-bear-brunt-of-covid-related-work-stress-uk-study-finds
Mothers’ Careers Are at Extraordinary Risk Right Now. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/family/archive/2020/10/pandemic-amplifying-bias-against-working-mothers/616565
Why Did Hundreds of Thousands of Women Drop Out of the Workforce? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/03/us/jobs-women-dropping-out-workforce-wage-gap-gender.html
The Virus Moved Female Faculty to the Brink. Will Universities Help? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/06/science/covid-universities-women.html
Pandemic Imperils Promotions for Women in Academia. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/29/business/economy/pandemic-women-tenure.html
Pandemic Will ‘Take Our Women 10 Years Back’ in the Workplace. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/26/world/covid-women-childcare-equality.html
The Pandemic & Its Detriment to the Female Workforce. Feminist Majority Foundation. https://feminist.org/news/the-pandemic-its-detriment-to-the-female-workforce/
Dads Three Times as Likely as Moms to Receive a Promotion While Working From Home During COVID. Working Mother.
Pandemic threatens to wipe out decades of progress for working mothers. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/women-employment-covid-economy-1.5685463
Something's Got to Give: Women's journal submission rates fell as their caring responsibilities jumped due to COVID-19. Without meaningful interventions, the trend is likely to continue. Inside Higher Ed.
More than 1 in 3 Black women are on the front lines of the pandemic, but they aren’t even close to equal pay. CNBC.
Pandemic lockdown holding back female academics, data show. The Times Higher Education.
Ignoring effects of Covid-19 on women could cost $5tn, warns Melinda Gates. The Guardian.
Women's participation in labour force reaches lowest level in 3 decades due to COVID-19: RBC. CBC News.
Why Working Moms Are Dreading September. Canadaland Podcast.
How our new work-life reality is chipping away at equity and inclusion. Fast Company.
Where The Women Aren't: On Coronavirus Task Forces. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/06/24/882109538/where-the-women-arent-on-coronavirus-task-forces
Coming back from COVID: How to ensure patriarchy and outright misogyny don’t thwart the ‘she-covery’. The Star. https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2020/06/20/coming-back-from-covid-how-to-ensure-patriarchy-and-outright-misogyny-dont-thwart-the-she-covery.html
The economy is starting to recover, but it’s leaving black women behind. Fortune. https://fortune.com/2020/06/08/may-unemployment-rate-black-women/
Mothers Leaving Work in Lockdown Could Widen Gender Pay Gap. Bloomberg.
The Coming Setback for Women in the Workplace. The Atlantic.
- Women leaders successfully fighting coronavirus show why we need a feminist foreign policy. NBC News.
- Coronavirus Employment Shock Hits Women Harder Than Men. The Wall Street Journal.
- Women's research plummets during lockdown - but articles from men increase. The Guardian.
- Why Are Women-Led Nations Doing Better With Covid-19? A new leadership style offers promise for a new era of global threats. The New York Times.
- Three Things Lockdowns Have Exposed About Working and Parenting. The New York Times.
- The “women’s work” of the pandemic. Vox.
- Women academics seem to be submitting fewer papers during coronavirus. The Lily.
- Majority of COVID-19 Related Job Loss Falls on Women and Minorities. Feminist.
- How Millions of Women Became the Most Essential Workers in America. New York Times.
- The Economic Devastation Of COVID-19 Is Hitting Women Particularly Hard. The Huffington Post.
- Paying Attention to Women’s Needs and Leadership will Strengthen COVID-19 Response. UN Women.
- Women Leaders are doing a Disproportionately Great Job at Handling the Pandemic. So Why Aren't There More of Them? CNN.
- Women Are Leading Canada’s Public Health Response to the COVID-19 Coronavirus Outbreak. Forbes.
Resources in this section reveal that:
- Generally speaking, lockdown measures place heightened burdens on women as primary care providers in families.
- Gender inequalities shape the rationales that heterosexual couples make about who should take on the added domestic labour and care burdens within households. These rationales include: who is already most knowledgeable about that work? whose career is the most flexible? and who makes less money? Gender inequalities mean that the answer to these questions is often women.
- Remote working conditions nonetheless also present opportunities for transforming gender inequalities at home by potentially normalizing flexible work arrangements that allow both genders to take on care responsibilities. With women more likely to be frontline workers, men may also need to take on caregiving roles out of necessity.
- The pandemic has emphasized the importance that care work and the childcare sector plays in social and economic life. It has also highlighted gaps in state support for that work.
Academic & Policy Resources:
Various. (Nov 25, 2020). Whose time to care: Unpaid care and domestic work during COVID-19. UN Women.
Rinaldo, Rachel and Ian M. Whalen. (Oct 14, 2020). Working Mothers and the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. Gender & Society Blog. https://gendersociety.wordpress.com/2020/10/14/working-mothers-and-the-covid-19-pandemic-in-the-us/
Miller, Karyn. (Oct 1, 2020). "The Ethics of Care and Academic Motherhood amid Covid‐19." Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12547
Andrea Hjálmsdóttir, Andrea and Valgerður S. Bjarnadóttir. (Sept 19, 2020). “I have turned into a foreman here at home.” Families and work‐life balance in times of Covid‐19 in a gender equality paradise. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12552
MacLeavy, Julie. (Sept 5, 2020). Care‐work, gender inequality and technological advancement in the age of Covid‐19. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gwao.12534
van der Linden, Clifton. (Sept 3, 2020). The moms are not alright: How coronavirus pandemic policies penalize mothers. The Conversation.
Heggeness, Misty. (Revised Aug 31, 2020). Why Is Mommy So Stressed? Estimating the Immediate Impact of the COVID-19 Shock on Parental Attachment to the Labor Market and the Double Bind of Mothers. Opportunity & Inclusive Growth Institute. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. https://doi.org/10.21034/iwp.33
Özkazanç‐Pan, Banu and Alison Pullen. (Aug 26, 2020). Gendered labour and work, even in pandemic times. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12516
Auðardóttir, Auður Magndís and Annadís G. Rúdólfsdóttir. (Aug 14, 2020). Chaos ruined the children’s sleep, diet and behaviour: Gendered discourses on family life in pandemic times. Gender, Work & Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12519
(2020). Transformational Responses to COVID-19: A Project of the Global Carework Network. The Carework Network. http://careworknetworkresponds.com
- Rivers, Caryl and Rosalind Barnett. (July 30, 2020). During the Pandemic, Men Are More Involved Fathers. Will It Last? Women’s Media Center.
- Güney‐Frahm, Irem. (July 6, 2020). Neoliberal motherhood during the pandemic: Some reflections. Gender, Work & Organization.
- Andrew, Alison et al. (May 27, 2020). Parents, especially mothers, paying heavy price for lockdown. Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Kate Bahn, Jennifer Cohen and Yana van der Meulen Rodgers. (May 7, 2020). A Feminist Perspective on COVID‐19 and the Value of Care Work Globally. Gender, Work and Organization.
- Carlson, Daniel L., Richard Petts, & Joanna R. Pepin. (May 6, 2020). US Couples’ Divisions of Housework and Childcare during COVID-19 Pandemic. SocArXiv.
- Keefe, Janice. (May 12, 2020). Covid-19 is demonstrating the value of family caregivers. Policy Options.
- Keyes, Sarah. (May 12, 2020). Will covid-19 lead to men and women splitting care work more evenly? History shows men have always been able to handle care work — when they have to. The Washington Post.
- Bezanson, Kate, Andrew Bevan, and Monica Lysack. (May 1, 2020). Part of Canada’s recovery must be an overdue plan for universal child care. The Hamilton Spectator.
- Craig, Lyn. (April 20, 2020). COVID-19 has laid bare how much we value women’s work, and how little we pay for it. The Conversation.
- Risman, Barbara. (April 21, 2020). Can This Time at Home Help Your Marriage? Psychology Today.
- Ruppanner, L., Churchill, B. and Scarborough, W. (March 26, 2020). Why Coronavirus may Forever Change the Way We Care Within Families. The Conversation.
- Battyany, Karina. (April 13, 2020). The Covid-19 Pandemic Reveals and Exacerbates the Crisis of Care. Open Democracy.
- Friendly, Martha and Morna Ballantyne. (March 24, 2020). COVID-19 Crisis Shows us Childcare is Always an Essential Service. Policy Options.
When Schools Closed, Americans Turned to Their Usual Backup Plan: Mothers. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/17/upshot/schools-closing-mothers-leaving-jobs.html
Coronavirus and gender: More chores for women set back gains in equality. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-55016842
Dads, Commit to Your Family at Home and at Work. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/11/dads-commit-to-your-family-at-home-and-at-work?ab=seriesnav-bigidea
For Some Fathers, Pandemic Brings a New Perspective—and Quiet Joys. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/for-some-fathers-pandemic-brings-a-new-perspectiveand-quiet-joys-11602006508
Other countries have social safety nets. The U.S. has women. Culture Study. https://annehelen.substack.com/p/other-countries-have-social-safety
- Has COVID-19 created universal child care’s moment in Canada? The Star. https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2020/09/21/has-covid-19-created-universal-child-cares-moment-in-canada.html
- The future of the economy hinges on child care. Vox. https://www.vox.com/the-highlight/21432940/child-care-bailout-covid-economy-work-parents-great-rebuild
- This Could Be the End of the Optimized Mom. Forge. https://forge.medium.com/this-could-be-the-end-of-the-optimized-mom-251c5db91518
- Moms are running on empty, but hungry for change. The Hill. https://thehill.com/opinion/civil-rights/515124-moms-are-running-on-empty-but-hungry-for-change
- Fall’s Looming Child-care Crisis. The Chronicle of Higher Education. https://www.chronicle.com/article/the-pandemic-child-care-crisis
- The child-care industry is on the brink of collapse. Congress must rescue it. The New York Times.
- How Caregiving Became More Than Just a Women’s Issue. The New York Times.
- Parents, trapped: Lack of child care could undermine economic recovery and hurt women, but the solution is expensive. The Globe and Mail.
- This Isn’t Sustainable for Working Parents. The pandemic has already taken a toll on the careers of those with young children—particularly mothers. The Atlantic.
- ‘They Go to Mommy First’: How the pandemic is disproportionately disrupting mothers’ careers. The New York Times.
- Where Are The Dads? They Need to Rise Up, Now. Chatelaine.
- In the Covid-19 Economy, You Can Have a Kid or a Job. You Can’t Have Both. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/02/business/covid-economy-parents-kids-career-homeschooling.html
- 7 out of 10 Canadian women experiencing anxiety due to unpaid care work during pandemic: survey. CTV News. https://www.ctvnews.ca/mobile/canada/7-out-of-10-canadian-women-experiencing-anxiety-due-to-unpaid-care-work-during-pandemic-survey-1.4990812
- Fathering and masculinity in the age of COVID-19: A noteworthy silver lining. Salon. https://www.salon.com/2020/06/20/fathering-and-masculinity-in-the-age-of-covid-19-a-noteworthy-silver-lining/
- Pandemic Could Scar a Generation of Working Mothers. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/03/business/economy/coronavirus-working-women.html
- This pandemic threatens to undo what generations of feminists have fought for. The Guardian.
- Pandemic Makes Evident 'Grotesque' Gender Inequality in Household Work. NPR.
- The Pandemic Is a Family Emergency: How the coronavirus exposes a crisis of care work. The New Republic.
- Nearly Half of Men Say They Do Most of the Home Schooling. 3 Percent of Women Agree
The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/06/upshot/pandemic-chores-homeschooling-gender.html
- The Men Pushing to Open the Economy Clearly Don’t Need Child Care. The Nation.
- COVID-19 highlights how caregiving fuels gender inequality. World Economic Forum.
- The Coronavirus Is a Disaster for Feminism. The Atlantic.
- The “All-Consuming” Emotional Labor Caused by Coronavirus—and Shouldered by Women. Ms Magazine.
- Women's Domestic Burden Just Got Heavier with the Coronavirus. The Guardian.
- Coronavirus and Poverty: A Mother Skips Meals So Her Children Can Eat. The New York Times.
- How Coronavirus Exposes the Great Lie of Modern Motherhood. The New York Times.
Resources in this section emphasize that:
- The COVID lockdown holds the potential to intensify incidents of intimate partner violence.
- Confined living quarters, intensified stress levels and job losses make domestic violence more likely.
- Lockdown conditions make it harder for victims to leave abusive situations and seek help from friends, family or social services.
Academic & Policy Resources:
- Ruíz, Elena, Yanet Ruvalcaba, Nora Berenstain, and Steph Fluegeman. (Nov 6, 2020). Measuring the economic impact of COVID-19 on survivors of color. Metoo and Freeform.
- Barbara, Giussy, et al. (2020). "Covid-19, lockdown, and intimate partner violence: some data from an Italian service and suggestions for future approaches." Journal of Women's Health. 29(10). https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/jwh.2020.8590
- Casey, Sara and Giselle Carino. (April 21, 2020). Gender-based violence in the COVID-19 pandemic. Science Daily.
- Westmarland, Nicole, and Bellini, Rosanna. (March 19, 2020). Coronavirus Lockdown is a Dangerous Time for Victims of Domestic Abuse – Here’s What You Need to Know. The Conversation.
- Decline in domestic violence calls cause for concern, says Sudbury Women's Centre. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/sudbury/sudbury-domestic-violence-calls-1.5699293?
- At least nine women and girls killed in domestic homicides in Canada during pandemic. The Globe and Mail.
- Bielski, Zosia. (March 23, 2020). Self-Isolation Directives Increase Risk for Women Facing Domestic Violence, Experts Warn. The Globe and Mail.
- As Cities Around the World Go on Lockdown, Victims of Domestic Violence Look For A Way Out. Time.
- Trapped at home: Coronavirus Could be Disastrous for Domestic Violence Victims. LA Times.
- For Abused Women, a Pandemic Lockdown Holds Dangers of Its Own. The New York Times.
These resources reveal that:
- Evidence suggests that men are infected at higher rates and are more likely to have serious COVID-19 illness experiences than women.
- The reasons for this disparity remain unclear but may be tied to gendered differences in health behaviours such as men’s higher participation in activities that put them at risk such as drinking and smoking, and lower participation in health-promoting behaviours such as handwashing.
- Women are more likely than men to report negative mental health effects due to coronavirus.
- Men’s more serious health experiences compound women’s care burden.
- COVID-19 presents an opportunity to examine how gender differences inform illness experiences and responses as well as to incorporate women’s experiences more completely into health research.
Academic & Policy:
Umamaheswar, Janani and Catherine Tan. (Oct 20, 2020). “Dad, Wash Your Hands”: Gender, Care Work, and Attitudes toward Risk during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Socius. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2378023120964376
Janoch, Emily. (Sept 2020). She told us so. Rapid Gender Analysis: Filling the Data Gap to Build Back Equal. CARE. https://www.care.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/RGA_SheToldUsSo_9.18.20.pdf
Barber, Sarah and Hyunji Kim. (May 19, 2020). COVID-19 Worries and Behavior Changes in Older and Younger Men and Women. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B.
Tan, Catherine and Janani Umamaheswar. (May 22, 2020). Taking Risk, Taking Care During COVID-19. Gender & Society Blog.
Glick, Peter. (April 30, 2020). Masks and Emasculation: Why Some Men Refuse to Take Safety Precautions. Scientific American.
- Chloe E. Bird, Lori Frank, Andrew W. Dick, Melanie A. Zaber, Denise D. Quigley, Anula Jayasuriya. (April 13, 2020). Women and COVID-19: Studying the Impact of Sex and Gender. The RAND Blog.
- Burrell, Stephen and Sandy Ruxton. (April 9, 2020). Coronavirus Reveals Just How Deep Macho Stereotypes Run through Society. The Conversation.
- Frederiksen, Brittni, Ivette Gomez, Alina Salganicoff and Usha Ranji. (March 20, 2020). Coronavirus: A Look at Gender Differences in Awareness and Actions. KFF: Women’s Health Policy.
- BMJ GH Blogs (March 24, 2020). Sex, gender and COVID-19: Disaggregated data and health disparities. BMJ Global Health.
- Toxic masculinity has become a threat to public health. Salon. https://www.salon.com/2020/10/18/toxic-masculinity-has-become-a-threat-to-public-health/
- Coronavirus Safety Runs Into a Stubborn Barrier: Masculinity. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/10/us/politics/trump-biden-masks-masculinity.html?smtyp=cur&smid=tw-upshotnyt
- Women worldwide are nearly 3 times more likely than men to report mental health impact from covid-19. The Lily.
- Why Does the Coronavirus Hit Men Harder? A New Clue. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/26/health/coronavirus-men-immune.html
- Performative masculinity is making American men sick. Vox. https://www.vox.com/the-goods/21356150/american-men-wont-wear-masks-covid-19
- What’s Really Behind the Gender Gap in Covid-19 Deaths? When in doubt, look to social factors first, not biology. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/24/opinion/sex-differences-covid.html
- Making men feel manly in masks is, unfortunately, a public-health challenge of our time. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/realmenwearmasks-may-be-helpful-but-the-fact-that-we-need-it-is-a-shame/2020/06/27/8f372340-b7eb-11ea-aca5-ebb63d27e1ff_story.html
- Why does Covid-19 kill more men than women? Researchers grapple with gender mystery. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/25/why-does-covid-19-kill-more-men-than-women-researchers-grapple-with-gender-mystery
- What the Pandemic Reveals About the Male Ego. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/13/opinion/sunday/women-leaders-coronavirus.html
- Where Women Are Ahead of Men: Hand Washing. The New York Times.
- Coronavirus Seems to Be Infecting and Killing More Men Than Women. The Wall Street Journal.
Resources in this section show that:
- COVID-19 has resulted in barriers to sexual and reproductive healthcare.
- Access to contraceptives and sanitary products may be disrupted due to supply chain interruptions.
- Health and social service providers may limit maternal and reproductive services due to physical distancing directives.
- Some policy makers, particularly in the US context, have used the pandemic as an opportunity to curtail women’s abortion rights.
- COVID-19 also shapes pregnancy and birth experiences by, for example, limiting support persons and requiring PPE in labour and delivery settings. It has also negatively impacted the mental health of pre- and post-partum mothers.
- Studies are mixed about whether COVID-19 transfers in utero from mothers to babies and whether the virus poses any added risks to newborns and pregnant women though most point to minimal added risk.
Academic & Policy:
- (July 2020). Pregnancy and COVID-19: Summary Overview. COVID Explained. https://explaincovid.org/kids/pregnancy-and-covid-19
- Davenport, Margie H., Sarah Meyer, Victoria L. Meah, Morgan C. Strynadka and Rshmi Khurana. (June 2020). Moms Are Not OK: COVID-19 and Maternal Mental Health. Frontiers in Global Women’s Health. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgwh.2020.00001/full
- van Rensburg, Margaret Janse, and Holly Smith. (July 6, 2020). Navigating Uncertainty, Employment, and Women’s Safety During COVID‐19: Reflections of Sexual Assault Resistance Educators. Gender, Work, and Organization. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gwao.12508?af=R
- Laura D. Lindberg, Alicia VandeVusse, Jennifer Mueller and Marielle Kirstein. (June 2020). Early Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from the 2020 Guttmacher Survey of Reproductive Health Experiences. Guttmacher Institute. https://www.guttmacher.org/report/early-impacts-covid-19-pandemic-findings-2020-guttmacher-survey-reproductive-health
- Joffe, Carole. (May 7, 2020). Coronavirus crisis magnifies existing challenges to abortion access. Women’s Media Centre.
- United Nations Population Fund Technical Brief. (March 2020). COVID-19: A Gender Lens. Protecting Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights, and Promoting Gender Equality. United Nations Population Fund.
- Hussein, Julia. (March 19, 2020). COVID-19: What Implications for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Globally? Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters.
- Ahmed, Zara. and Sonfield, Adam. (March 11, 2020). The Covid-19 Outbreak: Potential Fallout for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. Guttmacher Institute.
- Period poverty has surged in UK during Covid pandemic. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/nov/16/period-poverty-covid-pandemic-uk-crisis-charity-menstrual-products
- The Pandemic Politics of Reproductive Health Care. Ms. Magazine. https://msmagazine.com/2020/10/26/pandemic-politics-reproductive-health-care-abortion/
- A Rare Expansion in Abortion Access Because of COVID-19. Time. https://time.com/5893969/covid-19-medication-abortion/
- Why Decriminalizing Sex Work Would Help in the COVID-19 Fight. Rewire. https://rewirenewsgroup.com/article/2020/09/18/why-making-sex-work-legal-would-help-in-the-covid-19-fight/
- COVID-19 Is Complicating Pregnancies. This Black Midwife Has a Plan for That. Rewire News. https://rewire.news/article/2020/08/19/covid-19-is-complicating-pregnancies-this-black-midwife-has-a-plan-for-that
How the Pandemic Could Shape Conversations About Choosing to Remain Childfree. The Takeaway. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/takeaway/segments/covid19-pandemic-childfree-conversations
- During the Pandemic, More Women Must Miscarry at Home. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/29/parenting/miscarriages-dandc-surgery-pregnancy.html
- The Sexual-Health Supply Chain Is Broken. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2020/06/coronavirus-pandemic-sex-health-condoms-reproductive-health/
- A Critical Need: Addressing Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in the COVID-19 Pandemic. Medium.
- How Will the Coronavirus Affect Access to Safe Abortion? Medium.
- The Coronavirus Is Making the Case for Abortion Via Telemedicine. Mother Jones.
- “The Babies Keep Coming”: What the Coronavirus Pandemic Means for People Giving Birth
- Coronavirus: What we know so far about Risks to Pregnancy and Babies